Cancer is a disease caused by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. This abnormal cell growth can damage normal cells around it and in other parts of the body. Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer often causes death, because this disease generally causes no symptoms at the beginning of its development. As a result, this condition is only detected and treated after it reaches an advanced stage. Therefore, do screening or regular health checks so that cancer can be detected early. Meanwhile, to prevent it, live a healthy lifestyle, namely by eating a balanced nutritious diet, exercising diligently, not smoking, and not consuming alcoholic beverages. That’s why we need more doctor to solve the medicine, so let’s study medical and health sciences university.
Causes of Cancer
The main cause of cancer is genetic changes (mutations) in cells so that these cells grow abnormally. In fact, the body has its own mechanism to destroy these abnormal cells. However, if this mechanism fails, abnormal cells will grow uncontrollably.
Factors that can trigger the growth of cancer cells vary, depending on the type of cancer. However, there is no specific type of cancer that is triggered by only one factor.
Factors thought to be at risk of causing genetic mutations in normal cells and the body’s failure to repair them include:
- History of cancer in the family
- Age over 65 years, although some types of cancer are more common in children
- Smoking habit
- Exposure to radiation, chemicals (such as asbestos or benzene), or sunlight
- Viral infections, such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HPV
- Exposure to high levels of hormones or long term
- Not moving a lot and not exercising regularly
- Diseases that cause long-term inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis.
- Decreased immune system, for example due to suffering from HIV/AIDS
Symptoms that arise from cancer also vary, depending on the type of cancer and the organs affected. Some of the complaints that are often experienced by cancer patients are:
- A lump appears
- Pain in one part of the body
- Pale, weak, and tired quickly
- Drastic weight loss
- Impaired bowel movements or urination
- Chronic cough
- Spontaneous bruising and bleeding
- Fever that keeps on repeating
The type of treatment that the doctor will choose depends on several things, ranging from the type of cancer, the location of the cancer, the stage of the cancer, the patient’s general health condition, and the patient’s wishes.
Commonly used cancer treatment methods are as follows:
- Chemotherapy is done by giving drugs to kill cancer cells.
- Cancer surgery is performed by cutting and removing cancerous tissue.
- Radiotherapy is done by exposing a beam of radiation to kill cancer cells. Radiotherapy consists of two types, namely radiation from a machine that is outside the body (external radiotherapy) or radiation from an implant that is placed inside the body (brachytherapy).
- Bone marrow transplant
- Through this procedure, the patient’s bone marrow will be replaced with new bone marrow from a donor in order to produce normal and cancer-free new cells.
- Immunotherapy or biologic therapy aims to activate the patient’s immune system to fight cancer.
- Hormone therapy
- Some types of cancer, such as breast cancer and prostate cancer, are triggered by hormones. Therefore, inhibiting these triggering hormones can stop the growth of cancer cells.
- Targeted drug therapy
- Targeted therapy is done by giving drugs that can inhibit genetic mutations in cells.